How to Solve | Learn Analogies Reasoning Questions in Test | Quiz
MEDICINE : ILLNESS ::
(A) law : anarchy
hunger : thirst
etiquette : discipline
love : treason
stimulant : sensitivity
This is a classic function/purpose bridge—the purpose of MEDICINE is to prevent or cure ILLNESS. Ask yourself the following questions:
Is the purpose of LAW to prevent or cure ANARCHY, or disorder? This works, so hold on to Choice (A).
Is the purpose of PRIDE to prevent ENVY? No, in fact there is no strong connection between these two words. Eliminate.
Is the purpose of COURTESY to prevent BEHAVIOR? No, so eliminate.
Is the purpose of LOVE to prevent TREASON? No, so eliminate.
Is the purpose of a STIMULANT to prevent SENSITIVITY? No, a STIMULANT increases SENSITIVITY. Eliminate.
You could have eliminated choices (B), © and (D) if you had to guess for this one. None of these word pairs have a strong, defining connection. The pair of words in the stem always have a strong connection between them, and so the correct answer must as well.
PALTRY : SIGNIFICANCE ::
redundant : discussion
austere : landscape
opulent : wealth
oblique : familiarity
(E) banal : originality
Something PALTRY lacks SIGNIFICANCE. You are looking for the answer choice with the same connection between the words, so go through the answer choices one by one.
When something is REDUNDANT, or no longer needed, does it lack DISCUSSION? No, this word pair has no strong connection. Eliminate.
When something is AUSTERE, or plain and undecorated, does it lack LANDSCAPE? No, so eliminate.
When something is OPULENT, or rich and luxurious, does it lack WEALTH? No, quite the opposite. Eliminate.
Does something OBLIQUE lack FAMILIARITY? An OBLIQUE thing is indirect, so it may lack clarity, but not FAMILIARITY. These two words are not strongly connected. Eliminate.
Does something BANAL lack ORIGINALITY? Well, if something is BANAL it is predictable, so yes. That pair has the same relation as the stem pair. The classic relation of lack has left only one possible answer, choice (E).
EXTORT : OBTAIN ::
pilfer : steal
(B) plagiarize : borrow
explode : ignite
purify : strain
consider : appeal
When you EXTORT something, you obtain it by force or threats. To EXTORT is to OBTAIN dishonestly. Now look for the answer choice with the same connection between the words:
To PILFER is to STEAL dishonestly? Well, now, this is a tricky one. PILFER, which is a synonym for STEAL, is certainly dishonest. But how can you STEAL dishonestly? You can't—stealing is always dishonest! So this answer doesn't work.
To PLAGIARIZE is to BORROW dishonestly? Yes, plagiarism is borrowing material from another writer without giving him or her acknowledgment. That would fit the description of borrowing dishonestly. Choice (B) looks good.
To EXPLODE is to IGNITE dishonestly? No, so eliminate.
To PURIFY is to STRAIN dishonestly? No. Eliminate.
To CONSIDER is to APPEAL dishonestly? No. That leaves us with Choice (B).
SODDEN : MOIST ::
arid : harsh
nostalgic : emotional
wet : liquid
(D) maudlin : sentimental
assertive : bold
Something SODDEN is very wet, so it is, by definition, extremely MOIST. This is a bridge of DEGREE. Similarly, something MAUDLIN is, by definition, extremely SENTIMENTAL.
Of the wrong answers: Something ARID, meaning too dry to support agriculture, may be HARSH, but it is not necessarily so to a strong degree. Something NOSTALGIC, or reminiscent of some past place or condition, may make one EMOTIONAL, but there is no strong bridge between the two words. Something WET has LIQUID on or in it, but it is not, by definition, extremely LIQUID. Wrong bridge. Someone who is ASSERTIVE, or aggressive, may be BOLD, but there's no degree relationship here.
MAVEN : EXPERTISE ::
monarch : wisdom
athlete : determination
neophyte : honesty
klutz : grace
(E) supplicant : humility
By definition, a MAVEN, meaning expert, has expertise. Likewise, a SUPPLICANT, or humble beggar, by definition has HUMILITY.
Of the wrong answers: A MONARCH may or may not have WISDOM, an ATHLETE may or may not have HUMILITY, and a NEOPHYTE, or beginner, may or may not have HONESTY. You could eliminate all of these weak bridges. A KLUTZ, or clumsy person, by definition lacks GRACE. This is a strong but wrong bridge.
EQUANIMITY : HARRIED ::
celebrity : infamous
erudition : urbane
© moderation : dissolute
distinction : singular
intuition : logical
Someone who is HARRIED, or stressed, by definition lacks EQUANIMITY, or serenity. Likewise, someone who is DISSOLUTE, meaning lacking moral restraint, by definition lacks MODERATION.
Someone with CELEBRITY, or fame, may or may not be INFAMOUS, or disreputable. Someone with ERUDITION, or book knowledge, may or may not be URBANE, or suave. Someone with INTUITION may or may not be LOGICAL. You could eliminate all of these weak bridges. Something SINGULAR, meaning exceptional, by definition has DISTINCTION. This is a strong but wrong bridge.